Saturday, November 29, 2014

Thursday, November 20, 2014

Tata Ace - A Big Success LCV

The Tata 407 Pickup offers a payload of 2.25 tons. The Tata 407 Pickup gives customers the benefit of a relatively small turning circle radius of 5.5 meters which, along with an overall length of only 4,700mm, helps in maneuverability even in narrow lanes. The inherent ability of this vehicle gives customers an opportunity of carrying  load for longer distances, which translates into more business.
The Tata 407 Pickup comes with a service interval of 20,000km enabling the customer to spend less on maintenance. The legendary 407 platform with three years/ three lakh km warranty gives confidence and assurance of extended life. Market research indicated that a still smaller vehicle is needed and Tata Ace was developed.

The standard Ace HT is powered by a two-cylinder 702 cc engine, delivering 16 hp (12 kW) at 3200 rpm and a torque of 3.8 m·kgf (37 N·m) at 2000 rpm. It has a permissible loading capacity of 750 kg (1650 lb). It is equipped with a four-speed manual gearbox and has a top speed of 60 kmph. The Ace HT has a modern cabin compared to its three-wheeler rivals. It is best suited for use by villagers in carrying goods over short distances.

The Ace EX adds a five-speed gearbox, stop-start and larger wheels (13" over 12") and wider tyres (155 rather than 145), and a top speed of 70 kmph.

Super Ace
The Tata Super Ace is a 1 Ton diesel mini truck ideal for Intra City Applications and Last Mile Distribution, it offers a loading deck length of 2630 mm (the longest in its class) and a top speed of 125 kmph (78 mph). The Super Ace has a miserly turning radius of 5.1 m and boasts a mileage of 14 kmpl( 8.75 mpl). Which means it can cover an impressive 440 km per its 38 litre Fuel Tank. It has a three-way drop load body which provides a mere 60 cm height for comfortable loading and unloading.

A new two cylinder engine was developed for launching one ton Tata Ace.

The engine became the USP for Tata Ace. The vehicle's engine costed only a third of its competitors, It offered  optimum performance, including the fuel efficiency of a three-wheeler, while meeting BS II and BS III norms. Even after seven years of its launch and various competitors, Tata Ace has a 78 per cent market share. The performance and cost of the engine the main factor.

For Tata Ace, development was outsourced to the extent of 80 per cent. The suppliers were given the the design and cost targets and werre asked to deliver the component. The suppliers innovated and delivered according to Tata executives.  Similarly, the design team chose to try out a semi monocoque structure for Tata Ace where the body is welded to the frame, which gives weight efficiency to the vehicle. The idea became a success.

The team also adopted a systematic new product introduction process designed by Warwick Manufacturing Group with seven stages and a gateway at every stage. Ace failed to pass the gateway more than once demanding more effort from the design and development team to take the project forward..  The development of the vehicle was completed  on time in early 2005 and it met cost targets indexed to inflation. The overall development cost was Rs 200 crore (including the cost of setting up the 30,000-unit capacity in Pune).

When Ace was launched in May 2005, Tata Motors got the first mover advantage in that vehicle size. Other manufacturers rushed in  after the success of Ace but still not able to compete with it, Tata Ace has 78 per cent market share.

Innovations of Tata

Friday, November 14, 2014

Productivity Improvements in Indian Companies - 2014

Presentations at National Productivity Summit 2014, IMTMA

Ashok Leyland Ltd.

Productivity & throughput improvement in Casing machining line :

Ashok Leyland, Bhandara - Current Production: 233/ day 6 Speed gear box casing at a cycle time of 21.42 min/ piece. Production raised to 267/day with a cycle time of 18.85 min/piece.

Cycle time reduction was achieved by eliminating machining operations through product design change and combination tools, auto fixture cleaning, eliminating stoppage for coolant cleaning, better visual display and ergonomic improvements in workpiece handling. Productivity improvement by 19%, throughput by 20%, lower ppm and scrap were key benefits.

Bajaj Auto Ltd.

Better asset utilization in cellular manufacturing system by building flexibility for different model :

Bajaj Auto, Chakan plant, had to accommodate a new model's Cyl. Block, head and crank case in the existing four cells that were set up for other models (one cell for one model) at a production rate of 400 sets / day. Capacity was available in one cell. But making two models in the same cell necessitated refixturing and using different tools to accommodate different models. Set up change has to be carried out in a minimum time. The project was accomplished by doing 27 Kaizens. A set up change time for one cell consisting of four machines, was 12 min for the same family component and 24 min for another family part. In the process, all cells became fully flexible for five different models.

Bosch Limited.

Productivity improvement in "Inline Fuel injection Pump" value stream, to ensure product profitability :

By using a combination of several quality tools correctly and in a systematic manner, productivity improvement of 20%, reducing customer complaints to 29 ppm, improving OEE to 82% of honing machine. Substantial benefits were accrued to BOSCH, Adugodi plant.

Delphi TVS Diesel Systems Ltd.

Productivity improvement in BDN Nozzle manufacturing line to meet the increase in customer demand :

From a current line capacity of 3000 nos/ day of BDN nozzle, Delphi – TVS Mannur plant had to increase and produce 4000 nos/ day as per the  demand of the customer. Investigation showed high rejections during seat forming and cycle time exceeding TAKT time during ECM operation in soft stage. In hard stage rejections were high in OD grinding and low uptime during ID grinding. Considerable improvement was achieved by replacing OD Grinding by Hard Turning, process modification in ECM operation, eliminating breakdown of bearing in ID grinding and switching to cellular manufg. layout instead of process layout. Customer target was achieved with cost reduction due to lower rejections, power & manpower savings.

Hero MotoCorp Ltd.

To reduce Production Lead Time in Crank Shaft Line by implementing Single Piece Flow :

Crankshaft machining cell at Hero MotoCorp, Dharuhera plant, had high production lead time, machining time, machine idling, tool breakage & quality defects affecting the throughput of the organization. Buffer stocks are maintained. Single piece flow was a problem. Multiple small improvements resulted in eliminating Non Value Adding activities resulting in dramatic lead time reduction of 91%, productivity improvement by 39%, reduction in tool breakage & rejects and successful implementing single flow leading to financial benefits on account of inventory reduction as well.

Lucas TVS Ltd.

Productivity and Quality Improvement in Armature Brazing Clip manufacturing :

Lucas TVS, Padi, faced frequent line stoppages due to untimely availability of supplies and quality problems in brazing clip, a vendor supplied part. At supplier end operations were manually carried out in four stages and there was costly & significant scrap generated, especially because the brazing clip is made from silver alloy. On deciding to automate the production and piercing and forming the clip in a single set up, Lucas TVS was able to increase the production by 50%, reduce process scrap from 7.8% to 1.7%, eliminate line stoppage completely, with annual savings of Rs. 160 lacs. A saving of an innocuous part, like a brazing clip needed in huge nos. 92,000 per day resulted in huge savings.

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.

Productivity enhancement of Cylinder Head Line to meet Ramp Up target of 1040 heads/day :

Mahindra & Mahindra, Kandivali, team were given the challenge to increase productivity and thereby meet the target of cylinder heads to 1040 heads/ day from 840 heads/ day. The task was to improve productivity of 11 bottleneck machines in a line of 49 machines. Through machine reconditioning, automation of clamping, removing chips from source, easier autonomous maintenance, easier and quicker set up change, redistribution of machining operations and better machine layout the management objective was met. Production increased by 24%, ppm reduced by 72%, operator fatigue reduced and the shop floor appearance improved considerably.

Automotive Sector: Tool cost per piece reduction from Rs. 350 to Rs. 55 :

Using DOE approach Mahindra & Mahindra, Kandivali Plant, was able to optimize the cutting tool and its cutting parameter, which contributed significantly to the per piece tool cost. It resulted in a reduction of cycle time by 10% and therefore an increased productivity of 10%. Tool cost per component was dramatically reduced from Rs. 350 to Rs. 55.

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.

Energy Consumption Reduction in KB-Machine Shop :

At Maruti Suzuki, Gurgaon, electricity being a major contributor at 40% of total cost, management set a target of reducing it by 5%. Energy consumption was monitored during line running time as well as during break time/ holidays. Reducing cycle time and redistribution of machining operations resulted in sparing one line machine. Coolant pumps consumed considerable energy. Optimum usage of coolant pumps between machines saved energy. Chillers were also rationalized. Interlocking of hydraulic power packs and mist collectors with machine idling, optimized setting of Panel AC helped. Compressed air lines were controlled when air was not required in certain areas. Benefits to Maruti included not only reduced energy consumption of 9%, but reduced cycle time and rationalization of auxiliary units of machines.

Reliable Autotech Pvt. Ltd.

Capacity enhancement of Engine Plate by 76% through Manufacturing System Redesign :

Reliable Autotech, Pune, needed to machine 120 nos/ day engine plate as per their customer John Deere's requirement against line capacity of 75 nos/ day. Problems related to high cycle time on VMC, layout of machines, excessive handling, excessive space requirement, high set up time, and defects. By processing two pieces at a time, shifting tapping and chamfering operations to an in-house SPM and shifting some drilled holes to piercing, targeted cycle time on VMC was achieved. Layout modification with single piece flow helped reduce handling and handling defects and introduction of Pokayoke and SMED eliminated wrong work loading and reduced set up loss.

Tata Motors Ltd.

Weld shop productivity improvement through elimination of process, parts quality & equipment down time :

The Weld/ BIW shop in Tata Motors, Ahmedabad, produced 37 jobs/ hr instead of target of 62 jobs/ hr. To achieve the target, efforts were taken to control/ eliminate part quality issues, overlap standard loss times related to robots and spot welding guns, prevent breakdowns and reduce cycle times. Cycle time reduction was achieved through work load balancing of work station, reducing waiting time of robots, modifying fixtures and making some special tools. Not only production targets met but further benefits included quality efficiency going up to 97% with elimination of three major defects & reduction of energy and indirect material cost.

Wheels India Ltd.

Productivity enhancement through process redesigns in Rotary Forging & Flow forming. :

Constraints in the alloy wheel forging shop of Wheels India, Padi, resulted in a Pareto Analysis of this process. Spraying time, ejection time and spinning machine idling time were key contributors to lower productivity. Under utilization of billet heating furnace contributed to high energy cost per wheel. Idle times during forging cycle were considerable & overlapping/ elimination resulted in savings. Low cost automation resulted in cutting down manual intervention resulting in lower cycle time. Process changes helped in reducing cycle time by 33% and yield by 0.5%. Product quality also improved. All in all a substantial benefit accrued to the company, customer and environment.

To be rewritten

Reva Story - Electric Car in India

Mahindra acquired Reva

 In China, there wasn’t even one lithium ion battery maker 10 years ago. Today, there are 500 lithium ion battery makers. But in India, there still isn’t even one.

The Reva NXR will run on a lithium-ion battery and will have a top speed of 104 kmph and a range of 160 km on a full charge.

Reva’s Bommasandra factory: Maini has put in place a low-cost assembly line to produce the car at extremely low volumes at low costs. The shell is first fitted on wheels with tubeless tires and rolled from one workstation to the next. Its body is made of strong and colored polymer plastic that is light and dent and scratch proof. It has to be light to compensate for the extra weight of the batteries that power the car.

The Maini group companies supplied all the car’s components, except the battery (Exide), the motor (Kirloskar Electric), motor controllers (Curtis) and accessories (Modular Power Systems). They supplied the composite car body, all stampings, axles, brakes, suspension, wheels & hubs and a host of electrical parts, including the wiring harness, charger and integrated circuits. The energy management system used in the Reva, activated remotely by the company, IT-enabled system has the ability to optimize battery usage for the car owner. There is provision in the car that  extra-battery capacity can be released for someone, if they are stranded without a charging point around.

But Losses at RECC began to mount. The underpowered Reva (with a motor peak rated at 4.5 kw) sold about 3,500 units only. In the world, electric cars are now  much closer to internal combustion powered cars.

Best Forgings India Pvt. Ltd - Company Information

Best Forgings India Pvt. Ltd. is an ISO 9001:2008 certified company, reputed manufacturer, exporter and supplier of an efficient range of Ferrous and Non Ferrous Forged Components. Our product range includes products like Forged Parts, Forged Pipe Fittings, Forged Valves, Automobile Components, Automotive Forged Components, Flanges, Non-Ferrous Components, Electrical parts, Agriculture Parts and Machined Components.

Our products are designed and developed in compliance to international quality standards and offer superior performance. Known for precision engineering these are widely used in Automobile & Electrical Industry.

We Entertain Enquiries From International Markets.

Best Forgings India Private Limited
Mr. A. Mahalingam (Director)
No. 15- A, Private Industrial Estate,
Kurichi, SIDCO
Coimbatore - 641021, Tamil Nadu, India
Mobile: +(91)-9894614860
Telephone: +(91)-(422)-2673435
Fax: +(91)-(422)-2673435 , +(91)-(422)-2671080

Saturday, November 8, 2014

Exide Industries Limited

2013-14 Performance

The battery industry in India had a definite set back during 2013–14. Automobile sector had 4% growth  in 2013–14.  Utility vehicles sales continued to remain flat. The performance of commercial vehicles declined sharply by around 19%, out of which medium and heavy commercial vehicles sales declined by over 22%. The only redeeming feature was the two wheelers sales which grew by a modest 7% during 2013–14 due to which the overall automobile industry grew by a meagre 4% in 2013–14.

In the industrial battery segment, 2013–14 continued to be a difficult year with negative sentiments being exhibited across most of the infrastructure sectors. Since several infrastructural projects were held up due to various bottlenecks,this had an adverse impact on the sale of industrial batteries.

Exide Industries Limited recorded a net sale of Rs.5964.2 crores in 2013–14 as compared to Rs.6071.4 crores in the previous year with a corresponding profit before tax of Rs.723.1 crores as compared to Rs.742.3 crores in the previous year.

Exide Industries Limited, however undertook several cost cutting measures and also rationalized its product mix and was therefore able to maintain its profitability inspite of a lower top line growth.
Automotive Batteries.

Sales of Automotive batteries had a flat growth rate by value in 2013–14 as compared to that of the previous year. The aftermarket sales of fourwheeler batteries witnessed an overall de–growth of 8% in units,as compared to the previous year. However, in the two wheelers aftermarket there was a growth of nearly 5%. Sales of batteries in the four wheeler OEM segment was less by 7% in units during the year. However, in OEM two wheelers there was a minor growth of 1% in sales as compared to that of the previous year.

Exide Industries Limited continues to remain the preferred supplier to most of the vehicle manufacturers in the country. It supplies batteries for almost all the new vehicles launched during the year.

Apart from lead acid batteries,Exide Industries Limited  is the only domestic supplier of lithium–ion batteries for electrical vehicles manufactured by Mahindra–Reva.

Industrial Batteries

Sale of Industrial batteries during 2013–14 was Rs. 2065 crores as compared to Rs. 2614 crores in the previous year. Positive growth was witnessed in the Solar, UPS trade, Railways and Traction sectors. Major inroads were made in the Telecom segment not only through aggressive marketing but also due to introduction of newly developed cost competitive products.

New range of products introduced in the Inverter battery segment have been well received in the market. However, Tubular Inverter battery, where Industrial SBU is very strong in the market, had substantial de–growth due to poor demand arising out of moderate weather conditions.

Sales of submarine batteries was Rs.43.20 crores during 2013–14. Exide Industries Limited continues to be the sole supplier of submarine batteries to the Indian Navy and it is also an accredited supplier to the Admiralty Shipyard, Russia. Efforts are ongoing for securing export orders for submarines being manufactured in other countries also.

Home UPS

Due to strategic reasons and synergistic benefits, Exide Industries Limited acquired two Home UPS manufacturing units in the State of Uttarakhand. The products manufactured  are based on the superior Sine–Wave technology and have been very well accepted in the market. The Company is also considering manufacture of both solar and non–solar versions of HKVA range of inverters both for the domestic as well as the export market.

Export of automobiles batteries recorded an impressive growth of 21% in value as compared to the previous year. The overall export of Industrial batteries in value recorded a growth of 10% during 2013–14.
Apart from its traditional bases, Exide Industries Limited forayed into new markets in S.E.Asia, Africa and Spain for export of automotive batteries. In Industrial batteries, successful initiatives were taken to export batteries to new markets in Africa and efforts are under progress to consolidate this market. Apart from the same, industrial batteries were also exported to the  Company's two wholly owned overseas subsidiaries,viz.Chloride Batteries S.E Asia Pte Limited, Singapore and Espex Batteries Limited,UK.

Technology Upgradation

In order to maintain its leadership position the  Company is continuously upgrading its technology and also acquiring new technology to meet the ever increasing demands of its customers. The in–house R&D Division is recognized by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India. The R&D Division is actively engaged in creation of innovative products through improvements in manufacturing processes and materials with a continuous focus on cost reduction.

The Company entered into technical collaboration and assistance agreements with East Penn Manufacturing Company Inc. USA, (East Penn), a leading US manufacturer of high quality lead–acid battery and accessory products. Under these arrange­ments, East Penn is providing technical
assistance and support for the manufacture of automotive, motive power, standby, telecom, UPS, solar and traction batteries for the  Company's various plants in India. East Penn is also providing technical assistance and support to the two captive smelters of the Company located near Pune and Bangalore. Apart from the above, the Company has on–going agreements with Furukawa Battery Company Limited, Japan for Lead–Acid Storage Batteries including VRLA motorcycle battery and Maintenance –Free Batteries for 4 –wheelers and for Idle Stop–Start (ISS) Automotive batteries. Your Company also has agreements with Shin–Kobe Electric Machinery Co. Limited, Japan (a part of the HITACHI Group) for a variety of lead–acid batteries and components used for starting, lighting and ignition of automobile and VRLA batteries for industrial applications.

Recently, the Company also entered into a new a Technical Licence and Assistance Agreement with Shin–Kobe Electric Machinery Co. Limited, Japan to implement new manufacturing processes for producing cost competitive quality automotive batteries.

Business Operational Excellence

Stretching over one and a half decade, the TQM system has been continuously improved and upgraded to fulfill the stringent and changing requirements of customers, as well as to meet the strategic challenges of the business. International standards of Quality, Environment, Occupational Health & Safety; the latest techniques of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), Lean Manufacturing, 6–Sigma and various problem solving tools constitute the TQM framework for the Company's endeavour towards Business Excellence.

The sophisticated techniques of Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP), Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA), Statistical Process Control (SPC), Measurement System Analysis (MSA), Process Capability Studies, Poka Yoke (mistake–proofing) and cut–open analysis of products are used to ensure adherence to specifications, continuous monitoring and measurement, and minimal scrap / rework, aimed towards maximizing customer satisfaction and efficient use of resources.
With respect to the Quality Management System (QMS), the Automotive SBU is certified to ISO/TS–16949:2009 and the Industrial SBU and Submarine SBU to ISO 9001:2008. The certifications awarded, after rigorous auditing by the renowned Certification Body TUV–Nord (headquartered in Germany), including all business processes of Corporate, R&D,

Manufacturing, Marketing, Sales and After–Sales–Service.

Keeping up the momentum and carrying the tradition forward, Haldia plant has won the Award for Most Significant Improvement in TQM from CII in 2011 and Productivity Award from CII for 2013–14. As a mark of recognition your Company has won several awards and accolades during the last few years from valued customers like Toyota, Tata Motors, Bajaj, Suzuki, Mahindra & Mahindra – to name a few. Your Company has also won acclaim and recognition award for Design & Development from Maruti Suzuki in 2013–14. In recognition for its efforts towards other stakeholders, the Chinchwad plant in 2013 has won the Renault Special Prize for Coordination of Supplier Forum and also Quality Award for PPM achievement from John Deere in 2013. The QC teams from Shamnagar, Haldia and Hosur plants have been regularly winning awards and prizes at state and national levels from Quality Circle Forum of India and CII.
Our concept of Excellence extends to improvements in efficiency and effective utilisation of plant and equipment. Towards this important objective, your Company has implemented Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) in the factories. The best methodology as defined by the Japanese Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) is being followed. In recognition of its efforts in TPM, the JIPM has conferred the "Award of TPM Excellence" to Haldia plant in 2008, to Hosur and Chinchwad plants in 2010 and to Taloja plant in 2011. The Shamnagar and Bawal plants are expected to achieve it in the near future. Efforts are on to reach higher levels of achievement.

Environment and Safety
In line with its core value of being recognized as a responsible corporate citizen, an effective Environment Management System (EMS) has been designed and implemented in your Company. The Shamnagar, Haldia, Hosur, Taloja, Chinchwad and Bawal plants are certified to ISO 14001:2004. Rigorous surveillance audits by TUV–Nord has proved that your Company not only fulfills all applicable statutory and regulatory environmental norms, but has also continuously improved its environmental performance over the years.

Keeping in line with global expectations and stakeholder interests, the Environmental Policy has been revised in March 2014 to make it more stringent and forward looking towards sustainability. Optimal utilization of resources, minimization of waste, prevention of pollution and minimizing the adverse impact of activities, products and services continue to be fundamentals of the Environmental Policy, while new dimensions have been added like, reducing carbon footprint, promotion of energy efficiency and introduction of environment friendly technologies. Your Company's commitment extends to supporting other stakeholders in the value chain.
As part of the QMS and EMS, various improvement projects are undertaken to improve quality, conserve energy and reduce cost and any adverse environmental impacts. The Hosur plant has obtained "3–Star" rating in E–H–S from CII for2013.
The issue of Occupational Health & Safety (OH&S) of employees continue to be a focus area in your Company. We not only comply to all applicable legal and other OH&S requirements but also ensure that all operations, processes and activities are aimed towards prevention of injury and ill health. This commitment is demonstrated through the implementation of the OHSAS 18001:2007 international standard in the factories. The Hosur and Taloja plants have been certified, and other plants are expected to be so in the near future.

Corporate Social Responsibility
Your Company's well entrenched CSR philosophy recognizes the following areas as the thrust areas for its activities – Environment, Healthcare, Basic Education, Women's Empowerment and Community Development.

Your Company's factories in the far flung areas of the country develop and execute their own annual agenda for CSR work in the immediate vicinity. Within the broader framework of your Company's CSR policy, individual factories develop their own annual plan of action based on their interactions with the local community leaders and execute them throughout the year.
These activities typically involve running health camps in villages, helping the local community develop their social infrastructure like schools, health centers or village roads, planting of trees in environmentally sensitive areas to check soil erosion, flood relief work etc.

At a national level your Company's works with the noted international body of UNICEF to improve the health and environment of children in rural India under its WASH (Water, Sanitation and Health) program. The association has been working successfully since 2009 whereby a fixed amount is donated to the global body for every used battery that is returned to the Company us by the customers. This serves several socially desirable purposes. On the one hand it encourages customers to return used batteries that are recycled in an environment friendly manner, on the other it also generates funds for health and sanitation work in rural India where safe sanitation projects are undertaken by UNICEF. Through this activity your Company's customers also feel integrated into the overall CSR activities of your Company by being an active participant in the effort.
The national activity through UNICEF is supplemented by other local activities through reputed NGOs. In Kolkata, near your Company's headquarter, in active collaboration with the reputed NGO, CINI–Asha, basic education of some 150 slum children in the age group of two to six years is being provided on a sustained basis.

The Company has the advantage of having a product range covering a broad spectrum of applications, viz. Automotive, Infrastructure, Power,Telecom, Information Technology, Agriculture, Defense, etc. Technologically superior products coupled with a wide distribution and after–sales service network are the strengths of your Company. Apart from a strong presence in the existing segments, your Company had made forays into new areas such as batteries for electric and hybrid cars and two–wheelers and in the development of environment friendly storage power alternatives. With green and renewable energy being in focus, your Company has also geared itself to offer products catering to this segment and the initial response has been highly encouraging.

Your Company continues to invest in up–gradation and expansion of its manufacturing capacities. The in–house R&D Division has been consistently developing quality products and is also striving for achieving cost efficiencies. Your Company receives strong support from its Foreign Technical Collaborators not only in the form of sharing of new technology but also by receiving assistance in upgrading manufacturing and other processes which results in technologically superior products with sustainable quality.
Competition in the domestic battery industry is on the increase with not only the existing players being more aggressive to increase their market share but also with several new companies, including leading international players, making forays in this business. Though competition leads to better quality and service, it may also result in over capacity and predatory pricing thereby creating pressure on margins.

Wednesday, November 5, 2014

Non-Corporate Small Business in India

November 2014
There is an advertisement binge on the theme small business is big business in India.

They claim 5.77 crore enterprises providing employment to 24 crore self employed (may mean employment to family members) and total employment of 46 crores. It thus provides 90% of employment in the country.

It provides 45% contribution to National GDP.

The breakup is given as Government 23%, Corporate sector 15%, Agriculture 17% and Non-corporate sector as 45%.

News Room of the site has very interesting articles

The resource center also has interesting information

Setting Up and Running a Machine Shop Business

There are some one-machine shops where the total output is performed on one machine having unique properties such as the ability to perform very heavy work, or the ability to work at very high speeds with consequent savings in costs. Such machines are usually automatically controlled and expensive.

A machine shop is generally labor-intensive with a moderate investment of $7,000 to $10,000 per worker required. Total wages for the industry as a whole represent about 44 1 /2 percent of the total value
of the work performed in the industry.

The basic skill utilized in the labor force is that of the skilled machining worker.

Read "Machine Shop Job Work" a report on starting and running machine shops on job work basis  available on

Read also Running  a Machine Shop
F.H. Colvin and F.A. Stanley

They published large number of books on machining processes. See the big list of online books available of them maintained by Upenn Edu

An interesting business plan for machine shop in US

Approximate rates of machining in India in 2014
Given in Baja SAE India Competition

Lathe  100/hr
CNC   300/hr
Milling 125
Grinding 125
Gear cutting/shaping  250/hr
Gear Hobbing  300/hr


Mild Steel - 50/kg
Alloy Steel - 100
Aluminium - 250
Magnesium - 450
Titanium - 1000

Saturday, November 1, 2014

Crowdfunding - SEBI Rules India

SEBI floated a consulting paper on regulations for crowdfunding in India in June 2014.

October 2014 news says it will take some more time for final guidelines from SEBI.

SEBI Crowdfunding Definition : Crowdfunding is solicitation of funds (small amount) from multiple investors through a web-based platform or social networking site for a specific project, business venture or social cause.

Crowdfunding has been divided into 4 categories:  Donation crowdfunding, Reward crowdfunding, peer-to-peer lending and equity crowdfunding.

Crowd Funding Platforms - India

Copper Smelting Industry - Companies in India